1. Adolescent substance use needs to be identified and addressed as soon as possible. Drugs can have long-lasting effects on the developing brain and may interfere with family, positive peer relationships, and school performance. Most adults who develop a substance use disorder report having started drug use in adolescence or young adulthood, so it is important to identify and intervene in drug use early.
  2. Adolescents can benefit from a drug abuse intervention even if they are not addicted to a drug.18 Substance use disorders range from problematic use to addiction and can be treated successfully at any stage, and at any age. For young people, any drug use (even if it seems like only “experimentation”), is cause for concern, as it exposes them to dangers from the drug and associated risky behaviors and may lead to more drug use in the future. Parents and other adults should monitor young people and not underestimate the significance of what may appear as isolated instances of drug taking.Many adolescents who abuse drugs have a history of physical, emotional, and/or sexual abuse or other trauma.
  3. Routine annual medical visits are an opportunity to ask adolescents about drug use. Standardized screening tools are available to help pediatricians, dentists, emergency room doctors, psychiatrists, and other clinicians determine an adolescent’s level of involvement (if any) in tobacco, alcohol, and illicit and nonmedical prescription drug use.19 When an adolescent reports substance use, the health care provider can assess its severity and either provide an onsite brief intervention or refer the teen to a substance abuse treatment program.20, 21
  4. Legal interventions and sanctions or family pressure may play an important role in getting adolescents to enter, stay in, and complete treatment. Adolescents with substance use disorders rarely feel they need treatment and almost never seek it on their own. Research shows that treatment can work even if it is mandated or entered into unwillingly.22
  5. Substance use disorder treatment should be tailored to the unique needs of the adolescent. Treatment planning begins with a comprehensive assessment to identify the person’s strengths and weaknesses to be addressed. Appropriate treatment considers an adolescent’s level of psychological development, gender, relations with family and peers, how well he or she is doing in school, the larger community, cultural and ethnic factors, and any special physical or behavioral issues.
  6. Treatment should address the needs of the whole person, rather than just focusing on his or her drug use. The best approach to treatment includes supporting the adolescent’s larger life needs, such as those related to medical, psychological, and social well-being, as well as housing, school, transportation, and legal services. Failing to address such needs simultaneously could sabotage the adolescent’s treatment success.
  7. Behavioral therapies are effective in addressing adolescent drug use. Behavioral therapies, delivered by trained clinicians, help an adolescent stay off drugs by strengthening his or her motivation to change. This can be done by providing incentives for abstinence, building skills to resist and refuse substances and deal with triggers or craving, replacing drug use with constructive and rewarding activities, improving problem-solving skills, and facilitating better interpersonal relationships.
  8. Families and the community are important aspects of treatment. The support of family members is important for an adolescent’s recovery. Several evidence-based interventions for adolescent drug abuse seek to strengthen family relationships by improving communication and improving family members’ ability to support abstinence from drugs. In addition, members of the community (such as school counselors, parents, peers, and mentors) can encourage young people who need help to get into treatment—and support them along the way.
  9. Effectively treating substance use disorders in adolescents requires also identifying and treating any other mental health conditions they may have. Adolescents who abuse drugs frequently also suffer from other conditions including depression, anxiety disorders, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct problems.23 Adolescents who abuse drugs, particularly those involved in the juvenile justice system, should be screened for other psychiatric disorders. Treatment for these problems should be integrated with the treatment for a substance use disorder.
  10. Sensitive issues such as violence and child abuse or risk of suicide should be identified and addressed. Many adolescents who abuse drugs have a history of physical, emotional, and/or sexual abuse or other trauma.24 If abuse is suspected, referrals should be made to social and protective services, following local regulations and reporting requirements.
  11. It is important to monitor drug use during treatment. Adolescents recovering from substance use disorders may experience relapse, or a return to drug use. Triggers associated with relapse vary and can include mental stress and social situations linked with prior drug use. It is important to identify a return to drug use early before an undetected relapse progresses to more serious consequences. A relapse signals the need for more treatment or a need to adjust the individual’s current treatment plan to better meet his or her needs.
    A relapse signals the need for more treatment or a need to adjust the individual’s current treatment plan.
  12. Staying in treatment for an adequate period of time and continuity of care afterward are important. The minimal length of drug treatment depends on the type and extent of the adolescent’s problems, but studies show outcomes are better when a person stays in treatment for 3 months or more.25 Because relapses often occur, more than one episode of treatment may be necessary. Many adolescents also benefit from continuing care following treatment,26 including drug use monitoring, follow-up visits at home,27 and linking the family to other needed services.
  13. Testing adolescents for sexually transmitted diseases like HIV, as well as hepatitis B and C, is an important part of drug treatment. Adolescents who use drugs—whether injecting or non-injecting—are at an increased risk for diseases that are transmitted sexually as well as through the blood, including HIV and hepatitis B and C. All drugs of abuse alter judgment and decision making, increasing the likelihood that an adolescent will engage in unprotected sex and other high-risk behaviors including sharing contaminated drug injection equipment and unsafe tattooing and body piercing practices—potential routes of virus transmission. Substance use treatment can reduce this risk both by reducing adolescents’ drug use (and thus keeping them out of situations in which they are not thinking clearly) and by providing risk-reduction counseling to help them modify or change their high-risk behaviors.28,29

References:

  1. Johnston, L.D.; O’Malley, P.M.; Bachman, J.G.; and Schulenberg, J.E. Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 2013. Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2013. Available at www.monitoringthefuture.org
  2. Sussman, S.; Skara, S.; and Ames, S.L. Substance abuse among adolescents. Substance Use & Misuse 43(12–13):1802–1828, 2008.
  3. Robertson, E.B.; David, S.L.; and Rao, S.A. Preventing Drug Use among Children and Adolescents: A Research-Based Guide for Parents, Educators, and Community Leaders, 2nd ed. NIH Pub. No. 04-4212(A). Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2003. Available at: http://www.drugabuse.gov/pdf/prevention/RedBook.pdf
  4. Andersen, S.L.; and Teicher, M.H. Desperately driven and no brakes: Developmental stress exposure and subsequent risk for substance abuse. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 33(4):516–524, 2009.
  5. Andersen, S.L.; and Teicher, M.H. Desperately driven and no brakes: Developmental stress exposure and subsequent risk for substance abuse. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 33(4):516–524, 2009.
  6. Robertson, E.B.; David, S.L.; and Rao, S.A. Preventing Drug Use among Children and Adolescents: A Research-Based Guide for Parents, Educators, and Community Leaders, 2nd ed. NIH Pub. No. 04-4212(A). Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2003. Available at: http://www.drugabuse.gov/pdf/prevention/RedBook.pdf
  7. Dennis, M.; Babor, T.F.; Roebuck, C.; and Donaldson, J. Changing the focus: The case for recognizing and treating cannabis use disorders. Addiction 97:(s1):4–15, 2002.
  8. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Results from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings. NSDUH Series H-46, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 13-4795. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2013.
  9. McCabe, S.E.; West, B.T.; Morales, M.; Cranford, J.A.; and Boyd, C.J. Does early onset of non-medical use of prescription drugs predict subsequent prescription drug abuse and dependence? Results from a national study. Addiction 102(12):1920–1930, 2007.
  10. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Results from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings. NSDUH Series H-46, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 13-4795. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2013.
  11. Meier, M.H.; Caspi, A.; Ambler, A.; Harrington, H.L.; Houts, R.; Keefe, R.S.E.; McDonald, K.; Ward, A.; Poulton, R.; and Moffitt, T.E. Persistent cannabis users show neuropsychological decline from childhood to midlife. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Oct 2;109(40):E2657–E2664, 2012.
  12. Dennis, M.L.; White, M.; and Ives, M.I. Individual characteristics and needs associated with substance misuse of adolescents and young adults in addiction treatment. In Carl Leukefeld, Tom Gullotta, and Michele Staton Tindall (eds.), Handbook on Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment: Evidence-Based Practice. New London, CT: Child and Family Agency Press, 2009.
  13. Chan, Y.F.; Godley, M.D.; Godley, S.H.; and Dennis, M.L. Utilization of mental health services among adolescents in community-based substance abuse outpatient clinics. The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, Special Issue 35(1):35–51, 2009.
  14. Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Quantity and frequency of alcohol use among underage drinkers. The NSDUH Report: March 31, 2008. Available at: http://www.samhsa.gov/data/2k8/underage/underage.htm
  15. Breda, C.; and Heflinger, C.A. Predicting incentives to change among adolescents with substance abuse disorder. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 30(2):251–267, 2004.
  16. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Results from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings. NSDUH Series H-46, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 13-4795. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2013.
  17. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Drugs, Brains, and Behavior: The Science of Addiction. NIH Pub. No. 10-5605, Revised August 2010. Available at: http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/science-addiction
  18. American Society of Addiction Medicine. ASAM Patient Placement Criteria for the Treatment of Substance Related Disorders, 2nd Edition. Chevy Chase, MD: American Society of Addiction Medicine, 2001.
  19. Committee on Substance Abuse, American Academy of Pediatrics. Substance use screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment for pediatricians. Pediatrics 128;e1330; 2011. Available at: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2011/10/26/peds.2011-1754.full.pdf
  20. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol screening and brief intervention for youth: A practitioner’s guide. NIH Pub. No. 11-7805, 2011. Available at: http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/Practitioner/YouthGuide/YouthGuide.pdf
  21. Committee on Substance Abuse, American Academy of Pediatrics. Substance use screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment for pediatricians. Pediatrics 128;e1330, 2011. Available at: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2011/10/26/peds.2011-1754.full.pdf
  22. Miller, N.S.; and Flaherty, J.A. Effectiveness of coerced addiction treatment (alternative consequences): A review of the clinical research. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 18(1):9–16, 2000.
  23. Chan, Y.F.; Dennis, M.L.; and Funk, R.R. Prevalence and comorbidity co-occurrence of major internalizing and externalizing disorders among adolescents and adults presenting to substance abuse treatment. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 34:14–24, 2008
  24. Simpson, T.L.; and Miller, W.R. Concomitance between childhood sexual and physical abuse and substance use problems: A review. Clinical Psychology Review 22(1):27–77, 2002.
  25. Hser, Y.; Grella, C.E.; Hubbard, R.L.; Hsieh, S.C.; Fletcher, B.W.; Brown, B.S.; and Anglin, M.D. An evaluation of drug treatments for adolescents in 4 US cities. Archives of General Psychiatry 58(7):689–695, 2001.
  26. Godley, M.D.; Godley, S.H.; Dennis, M.L.; Funk, R.R.; and Passetti, L.L. The effect of continuing care on continuing care linkage, adherence and abstinence following residential treatment for adolescents with substance use disorders. Addiction 102(1), 2006.
  27. Godley, M.D.; Godley, S.H.; Dennis, M.L.; Funk, R.R.; and Passetti, L.L. The effect of assertive continuing care on continuing care linkage, adherence and abstinence following residential treatment for adolescents with substance use disorders. Addiction 102(1):81–93, 2007.
  28. Lambert, E.Y.; Normand, JL.; and Volkow, N.D. Prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS among drug-using populations: A global perspective. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 55(Suppl 1):S1–S4, 2010.
  29. Hagan, H.; Pouget, E.R.; and Des Jarlais, D.C. A systematic review and meta-analysis of interventions to prevent hepatitis C virus infection in people who inject drugs. Journal of Infectious Diseases 204(1):74–83, 2011.
  30. Shane, P.; Diamond, G.S.; Mensinger, J.L.; Shera, D.; and Wintersteen, M.B. Impact of victimization on substance abuse treatment outcomes for adolescents in outpatient and residential substance abuse treatment. The American Journal on Addictions 15, Issue Supplement s1:s34–s42, 2010.
  31. Nash, S.G.; McQueen, A.; and Bray, J.H. Pathways to adolescent alcohol use: Family environment, peer influence, and parental expectations. Journal of Adolescent Health 37(1):19–28, 2005.
  32. Hall, W.; and Degenhardt, L. Adverse health effects of non-medical cannabis use. Lancet 374:1383–1391, 2009.
  33. Johnston, L.D.; O’Malley, P.M.; Bachman, J.G.; and Schulenberg, J.E. Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 2013. Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2013. Available at www.monitoringthefuture.org
  34. Storra, C.L.; Westergaard, R.; and Anthony, J.C. Early onset inhalant use and risk for opiate initiation by young adulthood. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 78(3): 253–261, 2005
  35. Pollini, R.A.; Banta-Green, C.J.; Cuevas-Mota, J.; Metzner, M.; Teshale, E.; and Garfein, R.S. Problematic use of prescription-type opioids prior to heroin use among young heroin injectors. Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation 2:173–180, 2011.
  36. Ilieva, I.; Boland, J.; and Farah, M.J. Objective and subjective cognitive enhancing effects of mixed amphetamine salts in healthy people. Neuropharmacology 64:496–505, 2013.
  37. Kanayama, G.; Brower, K.J.; Wood, R.I.; Hudson, J.I.; and Pope, H.G., Jr. Treatment of anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence: Emerging evidence and its implications. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 109(1-3): 6–13, 2010.
  38. Skarberg, K.; Nyberg, F.; and Engstrom, I. Multisubstance use as a feature of addiction to anabolic-androgenic steroids. European Addiction Research 15(2):99–106, 2009.
  39. Humphreys K.L.; Eng, T; and Lee, S.S. Stimulant medication and substance use outcomes: A meta-analysis. JAMA Psychiatry 1–9, 2013.
  40. Committee on Substance Abuse, American Academy of Pediatrics. Substance use screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment for pediatricians. Pediatrics 128(5):e1330–1340, 2011. Available at: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2011/10/26/peds.2011-1754.full.pdf
  41. Kulig, J.W.; and the Committee on Substance Abuse, American Academy of Pediatrics. Tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs: The role of the pediatrician in prevention, identification, and management of substance abuse. Pediatrics 115(3):816–821, 2005.
  42. Committee on Substance Abuse, American Academy of Pediatrics. Substance use screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment for pediatricians. Pediatrics 128(5):e1330–1340, 2011. Available at: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2011/10/26/peds.2011-1754.full.pdf
  43. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol screening and brief intervention for youth: A practitioner’s guide. NIH Pub. No. 11-7805, 2011. Available at: http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/Practitioner/YouthGuide/YouthGuide.pdf
  44. Rosen I.M.; and Maurer, D.M. Reducing tobacco use in adolescents. American Family Physician 77(4):483–490, 2008.
  45. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Results from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings. NSDUH Series H-46, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 13-4795. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2013.
  46. Henggeler, S.W.; Halliday-Boykins, C.A.; Cunningham, P.B.; Randall, J.; Shapiro, S.B.; and Chapman, J.E. Juvenile drug court: Enhancing outcomes by integrating evidence-based treatments. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 74(1):42–54, 2006.
  47. Ives, M.L.; Chan, Y.; Modisette, K.C.; and Dennis, M.L. Characteristics, needs, services and outcomes of youth in Juvenile Drug Courts (JTDC) compared to adolescent outpatient (AOP). Drug Court Review, 7(1):10–56, 2010.
  48. McClelland, G.M.; Teplin, L.A.; and Abram, K.M. Detection and prevalence of substance use among juvenile detainees. Juvenile Justice Bulletin. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 2004.
  49. American Society of Addiction Medicine. ASAM Patient Placement Criteria for the Treatment of Substance Related Disorders, 2nd Edition. Chevy Chase, MD: American Society of Addiction Medicine, 2001.
  50. Balsa, A.I.; Homer, J.F.; French, M.T.; and Weisner, C.M. Substance use, education, employment, and criminal activity outcomes of adolescents in outpatient chemical dependency programs. Journal of Behavioral Health Services and Research Jan;36(1):75–95, 2009.
  51. Tanner-Smith, E.E.; Wilson, S.J.; and Lipsey, M.W. The comparative effectiveness of outpatient treatment for adolescent substance abuse: A meta-analysis. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 44(2):145–158, 2013.
  52. Liddle, H.A.; Rowe, C.L.; Gonzalez, A.;, Henderson, C.E.; Dakof, G.A.; and Greenbaum, P.E. Changing provider practices, program environment, and improving outcomes by transporting multidimensional family therapy to an adolescent drug treatment setting. American Journal on Addictions 15:Suppl 1:102–112, 2006.
  53. Morral, A.R.; McCaffrey, D.F.; and Ridgeway, G. Effectiveness of community-based treatment for substance-abusing adolescents: 12-month outcomes of youths entering Phoenix Academy or alternative probation dispositions. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors Sep;18(3):257–268, 2004.
  54. Dennis, M.; Godley, S.H.; Diamond, G.; Tims, F.M.; Babor, T.; Donaldson, J.; Liddle, H.; Titus, J.C.; Kaminer, Y.; Webb, C.; Hamilton, N.; and Funk, R. The Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Study: Main findings from two randomized trials. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 27(3):197–213, 2004.
  55. Kaminer, Y.; and Waldron, H.B. Evidence-based cognitive behavioral therapies for adolescent substance use disorders: Applications and challenges. In C. Rowe & H. Liddle (eds.), Adolescent substance abuse: Research and clinical advances. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 396–419, 2006.
  56. Stanger, C.; and Budney, A.J.; Contingency management approaches for adolescent substance use disorders. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America 19(3):547–562, 2010.
  57. Barnett, E.; Sussman, S.; Smith, C.; Rohrbach, L.A.; and Spruijt-Metz, D. Motivational Interviewing for adolescent substance use: a review of the literature. Addictive Behaviors 37(12):1325–1334, 2012.
  58. Kelly, J.F.; and Urbanoski, K. Youth recovery contexts: The incremental effects of 12-step attendance and involvement on adolescent outpatient outcomes. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research 36(7):1219–1229, 2012.
  59. Hogue, A.; and Liddle, H.A. Family-based treatment for adolescent substance abuse: controlled trials and new horizons in services research. Journal of Family Therapy 31(2):126–154, 2009.
  60. Robbins, M.S.; Feaster, D.J.; Horigian, V.E.; Rohrbaugh, M.; Shoham, V.; Bachrach, K.;, Miller, M., Burlew, K.A.; Hodgkins, C.; Carrion, I.; Vandermark, N.; Schindler, E.; Werstlein, R.; and Szapocznik, J. Brief strategic family therapy versus treatment as usual: Results of a multisite randomized trial for substance using adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 79(6):713–727, 2011.
  61. Donohue, B., Allen, D.A., and Lapota, H. Family Behavior Therapy. In D. Springer; and A. Rubin (eds.), Substance Abuse Treatment for Youth and Adults. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., pp. 205–255, 2009.
  62. Waldron, H.B.; Turner, C.W.; and Ozechowski, T.J. Profiles of drug use behavior change for adolescents in treatment. Addictive Behaviors 30(9):1775–1796, 2005.
  63. Liddle, H.A.; Dakof, G.A.; Henderson, C.; and Rowe, C. Implementation outcomes of multidimensional family therapy-detention to community: A reintegration program for drug-using juvenile detainees. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 55(4):587–604, 2011.
  64. Sheidow, A.J.; and Henggeler, S.W. Multisystemic therapy with substance using adolescents: A synthesis of the research. In N. Jainchill (Ed.), Understanding and Treating Adolescent Substance use Disorders: Assessment, Treatment, Juvenile Justice Responses. Kingston, NJ: Civic Research Institute, pp. 9-1–9-22, 2012.
  65. Subramaniam, G.A.; Warden, D.; Minhajuddin, A.; Fishman, M.J.; Stitzer, M.L.; Adinoff, B.; Trivedi, M.; Weiss, R.; Potter, J.; Poole, S.A.; and Woody, G.E. Predictors of abstinence: National Institute on Drug Abuse multisite buprenorphine/naloxone treatment trial in opioid-dependent youth. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 50(11):1120–1128, 2011.
  66. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Physician Waiver Qualifications. Available at: http://buprenorphine.samhsa.gov/waiver_qualifications.html
  67. Woody, G.E.; Poole, S.A.; Subramaniam, G.; Dugosh, K.; Bogenschutz, M.; Abbott, P.; Patkar, A.; Publicker, M.; McCain, K.; Potter, J.S.; Forman, R.; Vetter, V.;, McNicholas, L.; Blaine, J.; Lynch, K.G.; and Fudala, P. Extended vs short-term buprenorphine-naloxone for treatment of opioid-addicted youth: a randomized trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 300(17):2003–2011, 2008. Erratum in Journal of the American Medical Association 301(8):830, 2009.
  68. Marsch, L.A.; Bickel, W.K.; Badger, G.J.; Stothart, M.E.; Quesnel, K.J.; Stanger, C.; and Brooklyn, J. Comparison of pharmacological treatments for opioid-dependent adolescents: A randomized controlled trial. Archives of General Psychiatry 62(10):1157–1164, 2005.
  69. Marsch, L.A. Treatment of adolescents. In Strain, E.C.; and Stitzer, M.L. (eds.) The Treatment of Opioid Dependence. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, pp. 497–507, 2005.
  70. Fishman, M.J.; Winstanley, E.L.; Curran, E.; Garrett, S.; and Subramaniam, G. Treatment of opioid dependence in adolescents and young adults with extended release naltrexone: Preliminary case-series and feasibility. Addiction 105(9):1669–1676, 2010.
  71. Niederhofer, H.; and Staffen, W. Comparison of disulfiram and placebo in treatment of alcohol dependence of adolescents. Drug and Alcohol Review 22(3):295–297, 2003.
  72. Gray, K.M.; Carpenter, M.J.; Baker, N.L.; Hartwell, K.J.; Lewis, A.L.; Hiott, D.W.; Deas, D.; and Upadhyaya, H.P. Bupropion SR and contingency management for adolescent smoking cessation. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 40(1):77–86, 2011.
  73. Moolchan, E.T.; Robinson, M.L.; Ernst, M.; Cadet, J.L.; Pickworth, W.B.; Heishman, S.J.; and Schroeder, J.R. Safety and efficacy of the nicotine patch and gum for the treatment of adolescent tobacco addiction. Pediatrics 115(4):e407–414, 2005.
  74. Gray, K.M.; Carpenter, M.J.; Lewis, A.L.; Klintworth, E.M.; and Upadhyaya, H.P. Varenicline versus bupropion XL for smoking cessation in older adolescents: A randomized, double-blind pilot trial. Nicotine and Tobacco Research 14(2):234–239, 2012.
  75. Godley, M.D.; Godley, S.H.; Dennis, M.L.; Funk, R.R.; and Passetti, L.L. The effect of assertive continuing care on continuing care linkage, adherence and abstinence following residential treatment for adolescents with substance use disorders. Addiction 102(1):81–93, 2007.
  76. Kelly, J.F.; Dow, S.J.; Yeterian, J.D.; and Kahler, C.W. Can 12-step group participation strengthen and extend the benefits of adolescent addiction treatment? A prospective analysis. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 110(1-2):117–125, 2010.
  77. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. What are peer recovery support services? Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2009. Available at: http://store.samhsa.gov/shin/content/SMA09-4454/SMA09-4454.pdf
  78. Moberg, D.P.; and Finch, A.J. Recovery high schools: A descriptive study of school programs and students. Journal of Groups in Addiction & Recovery 2:128–161, 2008.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Post comment